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Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal


Though theoretically poisonous, the active components are in such small quantities that no record exists of its causing harm. John Gerard's way of describing its use to cure bruising is, however, capable of giving offence.

Blog Entries

Read more about Polygonatum, Solomon's seal, in these blog entries;
Its use in herbal remedies is based on mistranslating the alternative Latin name


Convallariaceae, though it is often said to be in the Liliaceae family and, since 1998, it has been included in the Ruscaceae family.

Meaning of the Name

From the Greek ‘poly’, ‘many’ and ‘gona’, ‘knee-joints’ from the many joints in the rhizomes.
Sweet smelling.

Common Names and Synonyms

Solomon's seal, angular Solomon's seal, fragrant Solomon's seal.

How Poisonous, How Harmful?

Contains saponins but in a fairly small amount. Also contains a small amount of the cardiac glycoside, convallamarin, but the quantity is so small that there are no reported cases of poisoning. Ingestion of a very large quantity would be required but the plant is frequently subject to predation which means that it does not form the berries which might be attractive enough to encourage consumption.


One visitor to the Alnwick Garden Poison Garden was horrified to find Solomon’s seal as she had, when a child, persuaded a friend of hers to join her in eating the berries which she remembered as being quite sweet and tasty.

A 1983 letter to 'The Veterinary Record' dealt with an apparent poisoning of a dog by Polygonatum but no other reports of poisoning exist.

Folklore and Facts

There are references online to Solomon’s seal being used to make a type of snuff and causing sneezing as a result. This seems to come from Mrs Grieve who mentions its use for this purpose but it is not mentioned by Gerard, Dioscorides, Culpepper or any of the other well-known writers. In the ‘Phantastica’, Louis Lewin devotes two paragraphs to alternatives to tobacco for use as snuff but does not mention Solomon’s seal.

Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal

Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal

John Gerard claimed it was a panacea for wounds and bruises of all sorts saying that it ‘taketh away in one night, or two at the most, any bruise, black or blue spots gotten by falls or women’s wilfulness, in stumbling upon their hasty husbands fists, or such like’.

Solomon’s seal is the two interconnecting triangles with points said to indicate the positions of Christ’s wounds. Polygonatum spp. have marks on the root which are said to resemble Solomon’s seal. Gerard quotes Dioscorides’ recommendation of using the root to close up wounds but then appears to attribute the alternative name, Sigillum Salomonis, which means seal of Solomon, to Dioscorides though Dioscorides does not use this name.

Gerard says it is good to heal broken bones and hence the name Sigillum, however, sigillum, in Latin, means only the type of seal used as an identifying mark and has nothing to do with joining together. Its use to knit bone would seem, therefore, to be of English origin and based on the English dual meaning of the word ‘seal’.


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Abrus precatorius, rosary pea
Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfsbane
Aconitum napellus, monkshood
Actaea racemosa, black cohosh
Actaea spicata, baneberry
Aesculus hippocastanum, horse chestnut
Amanita muscaria, fly agaric
Aquilegia atrata, columbine
Aristolochia clematitis, birthwort
Artemisia absinthium, wormwood
Arum italicum, Italian cuckoopint
Arum maculatum, cuckoopint
Aspergillus fumigatus
Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade
Brugmansia suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Bryonia dioica, bryony
Buxus sempervirens, common box
Camellia sinensis, tea
Cannabis sativa, marijuana
Catha edulis, khat
Chelidonium majus, greater celandine
Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh
Claviceps purpurea, ergot
Clematis vitalba, old man's beard
Colchicum autumnale, naked ladies
Conium maculatum, poison hemlock
Convallaria majalis, lily of the valley
Cynoglossum officinale, hound’s tongue
Daphne mezereon, spurge olive
Datura stramonium, thorn apple, jimsonweed
Datura suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Delphinium, larkspur
Digitalis spp., foxglove
Dracunculus vulgaris, dragon arum
Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss
Eranthis hyemalis, winter aconite
Erythroxylum coca, cocaine
Euonymus europaeus, spindle tree
Euphorbia x martinii, red spurge
Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia
Fritillaria spp., fritillary
Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop
Hedera helix, common ivy
Helleborus spp., hellebore
Heracleum mantegazzianum, giant hogweed
Hyacinthoides non-scripta, bluebell
Hyoscyamus niger, black henbane
Ilex aquifolium, holly
Jacobaea vulgaris, ragwort
Juniperus communis, common juniper
Laburnum anagyroides, laburnum
Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce
Leucojum aestivum, snowflake
Lithospermum officinale, gromwell
Lolium temulentum, darnel
Malus 'John Downie', crab apple
Mandragora officinarum, mandrake
Mercurialis perennis, dog’s mercury
Narcissus, daffodil
Nepeta faassenii, catmint
Nerium oleander, oleander
Nicotiana sylvestris, tobacco
Oenanthe crocata, hemlock water dropwort
Papaver somniferum, opium poppy
Pastinaca sativa, parsnip
Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal
Prunus laurocerasus, cherry laurel
Pulsatilla vulgaris, pasque flower
Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup
Rheum x hybridum, rhubarb
Rhododendron spp.
Rhus radicans, poison ivy
Ricinus communis, castor oil plant
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary
Rumex obtusifolius, broad-leaved dock
Ruta graveolens, rue
Salix alba, white willow
Salvia divinorum, sage
Scutellaria laterifolia, Virginian skullcap
Senecio jacobaea, ragwort
Solanum dulcamara, woody nightshade
Solanum melongena, aubergine
Strychnos nux-vomica, poison nut
Symphoricarpos albus, snowberry
Symphytum spp., comfrey
Taxus baccata, yew
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Urtica dioica, stinging nettle
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Viscum album, mistletoe
Vitex agnus-castus, chaste tree