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Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss

Summary

A stunning looker when it flowers in its second year but not a plant to grow tired of as its roots extend deep into the ground.

Blog Entries

Read more about Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss, in these blog entries (most recent first);
An Australian dairy farmer blogs about Echium plantagineum, Patterson's curse.

Family

Boraginaceae

Meaning of the Name

Echium
From the Greek, ‘echis’, ‘viper’.
 
vulgare
An alternative for ‘vulgaris’ meaning ‘common’.


Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss

Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss

Common Names and Synonyms

viper’s bugloss, common viper’s bugloss, bluebottle, our saviour’s flannel, ironweed

How Poisonous, How Harmful?

Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids like hound’s tongue and ragwort, though ragwort has a higher concentration. Consumption over a long period could cause irreparable liver damage.

 

 

Incidents

There are no reported human poisoning incidents but there have been numerous reports of poisoning in animals especially sheep and horses. It seems, however, that most of these involve Echium plantagineum rather than the vulgare.

In 2003, bushfires in the Canberra area destroyed grazing and Echium plantagineum was the first to recover. It is reported that 40 horses were put down after becoming ill from eating the plant.

A 2006 paper details poisoning of bulls in Spain who ate both Echium vulgare and Jacobaea vulgaris (syn. Senecio jacobaea), common ragwort.

in 2010, Montana State University published a leaflet about the plant, known as blueweed in the USA.

It is interesting that, although the plant has proven ability to be fatal to horses, it does not attreact the same hysteria from the horse community as ragwort.

Folklore and Facts

In Kent, the name 'our saviour's flannel' is applied to Verbascum olympicum, great mullein, apparently because of its soft, velvet smooth leaves. Bugloss, on the other hand, means ox tongue, apparently because of the roughness of the leaves. It is generally held that reverence limited the use of references to Christ in plant names so it is unlikely that the use was ironic. It may be an indication of Christ's suffering that even his flannel was rough and uncomfortable.

It is a noxious weed which, if present in pasture, requires great labour for its removal as the plant must be uprooted which, given that its roots extend several feet straight down, is a very difficult task.

Dioscorides recommended it for snake bite. William Coles, the proponent of the Doctrine of Signatures claimed the nutlets look like a viper’s head and the speckled stalk looks like snakeskin.

Echium vulgare is, sometimes, said to be the plant known in Australia as Patterson's Curse but this is Echium plantagineum (Purple Viper's Bugloss). It is called Patterson's curse because, it is said, a Mrs Patterson brought it to Australia to decorate her garden not knowing that it would thrive and escape and become a serious problem for livestock.

Like all plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, consumption over a period can lead to liver failure but no ill effects are seen initially. This leads to it being known as Salvation Jane in South Australia. It is drought hardy and may be the only foliage plant available in extended dry periods. 

IMPORTANT NOTE

The POISON GARDEN website is not connected with Alnwick Garden Enterprises Ltd and/or The Alnwick Garden Trust.

 

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Introduction to the A to Z section
Abrus precatorius, rosary pea
Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfsbane
Aconitum napellus, monkshood
Actaea racemosa, black cohosh
Actaea spicata, baneberry
Aesculus hippocastanum, horse chestnut
Amanita muscaria, fly agaric
Aquilegia atrata, columbine
Aristolochia clematitis, birthwort
Artemisia absinthium, wormwood
Arum italicum, Italian cuckoopint
Arum maculatum, cuckoopint
Aspergillus fumigatus
Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade
Brugmansia suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Bryonia dioica, bryony
Buxus sempervirens, common box
Camellia sinensis, tea
Cannabis sativa, marijuana
Catha edulis, khat
Chelidonium majus, greater celandine
Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh
Claviceps purpurea, ergot
Clematis vitalba, old man's beard
Colchicum autumnale, naked ladies
Conium maculatum, poison hemlock
Convallaria majalis, lily of the valley
Cynoglossum officinale, hound’s tongue
Daphne mezereon, spurge olive
Datura stramonium, thorn apple, jimsonweed
Datura suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Delphinium, larkspur
Digitalis spp., foxglove
Dracunculus vulgaris, dragon arum
Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss
Eranthis hyemalis, winter aconite
Erythroxylum coca, cocaine
Euonymus europaeus, spindle tree
Euphorbia x martinii, red spurge
Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia
Fritillaria spp., fritillary
Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop
Hedera helix, common ivy
Helleborus spp., hellebore
Heracleum mantegazzianum, giant hogweed
Hyacinthoides non-scripta, bluebell
Hyoscyamus niger, black henbane
Ilex aquifolium, holly
Jacobaea vulgaris, ragwort
Juniperus communis, common juniper
Laburnum anagyroides, laburnum
Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce
Leucojum aestivum, snowflake
Lithospermum officinale, gromwell
Lolium temulentum, darnel
Malus 'John Downie', crab apple
Mandragora officinarum, mandrake
Mercurialis perennis, dog’s mercury
Narcissus, daffodil
Nepeta faassenii, catmint
Nerium oleander, oleander
Nicotiana sylvestris, tobacco
Oenanthe crocata, hemlock water dropwort
Papaver somniferum, opium poppy
Pastinaca sativa, parsnip
Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal
Prunus laurocerasus, cherry laurel
Pulsatilla vulgaris, pasque flower
Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup
Rheum x hybridum, rhubarb
Rhododendron spp.
Rhus radicans, poison ivy
Ricinus communis, castor oil plant
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary
Rumex obtusifolius, broad-leaved dock
Ruta graveolens, rue
Salix alba, white willow
Salvia divinorum, sage
Scutellaria laterifolia, Virginian skullcap
Senecio jacobaea, ragwort
Solanum dulcamara, woody nightshade
Solanum melongena, aubergine
Strychnos nux-vomica, poison nut
Symphoricarpos albus, snowberry
Symphytum spp., comfrey
Taxus baccata, yew
Toxicodendron radicans, poison ivy
Thevetia peruviana, yellow oleander
Urtica dioica, stinging nettle
Veratrum album, white hellebore
Verbascum olympicum, Greek mullein
Vinca major, greater periwinkle
Viscum album, mistletoe
Vitex agnus-castus, chaste tree