THE POISON GARDEN website Arum maculatum berries on a Cannabis leaf 


This free script provided by JavaScript Kit

Click for menu of plants in the A to Z section

Chelidonium majus, greater celandine


Its bitter taste prevents the plant from causing harm, these days. Its method of use in Anglo Saxon medicine gives an indication that our ancestors were not as wholly driven by suspicion as we sometimes think they were.



Meaning of the Name

From the Greek ‘chelidon’ for the swallow.  Some say the plant appeared at the same time as the swallow, others that swallows were seen putting the plant into chicks’ eyes to restore their sight.
Larger.  The root ‘maj’ also means May but the normal form of ‘May flowering’ is ‘majalis’.

Common Names and Synonyms

greater celandine, wartwort, yellow spit, St John’s wort, Jacob’s ladder. The last two are mostly applied to Hypericum perforatum and Polemonium caeruleum, respectively.

How Poisonous, How Harmful?

The toxic substances are isoquinoline alkaloids and are most concentrated in the roots though harm most often comes from the bright yellow juice of the stem which causes nausea though its bitter taste discourages ingestion. On the skin, the juice produces burning, hence its use to remove warts.

The yellow colour of the juice, matching the colour of bile, led to its use to treat liver disorders in accordance with the Doctrine of Signatures but isoquinoline alkaloids cause liver damage.


In 1999, Benninger at al reported ten cases of acute hepatitis in patients who were taking a herbal remedy made of greater celandine. In all cases, liver function improved rapidly when the medication was withdrawn.

In 1903, it was reported that cattle had died after eating the fruit of the plant.

Folklore and Facts

Chelidonium majus, greater celandine

Chelidonium majus, greater celandine

The name Chelidonium comes from the Greek for a swallow. Some said it flowered when the swallows arrived. Some said mother swallows would use it to restore the sight of their young. As a result, it was used in the eyes ‘for it cleanseth and consumeth awaie slimie things that cleave about the ball of the eye’ according to John Gerard. This in spite of Gerard's assertion that its use by swallows is false because there is evidence that, if the eyes of a young swallow are put out, they will regrow naturally without the use of the herb.

Use of a substance in the eyes which can burn warts off the skin would seem to be problematic but in Anglo-Saxon Medicine, M. L. Cameron explains that, when being used as an eye salve, recipes including celandine require it to be heated skilfully to become lukewarm. It is mixed with honey and the heating must take place in a brass or copper pot. The heating reduced the irritant nature of the celandine and the honey and copper salts from the pot were bactericidal so the remedy may have had some efficacy. The heating needed to be done skilfully to avoid burning.

Cameron also discusses the incantations which were often said as recipes were being prepared. He points out that, in the absence of clocks, giving an incantation to be recited, generally thrice, would give some consistency to the preparation time. Though acknowledging that by making the incantations mysterious (some were in dialects which would not be known to ordinary Anglo-Saxons) the placebo effect could be enhanced by making the medicine ‘magical’, he points out that many Anglo-Saxon remedies have some measure of scientific underpinning and must have developed as a result of careful observation of diseases and the potions used to try and effect cures. It may be that an incantation containing foreign words could not be rushed so their inclusion would add to the consistency of the recitation time.


The POISON GARDEN website is not connected with Alnwick Garden Enterprises Ltd and/or The Alnwick Garden Trust.


Site Update

All the pages in the A to Z section are regularly updated.

If you've had a personal encounter with a poisonous plant please use the contact form to tell us about it.

A to Z Links

Not familiar with botanical names? Try this common name A to Z converter

Introduction to the A to Z section
Abrus precatorius, rosary pea
Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfsbane
Aconitum napellus, monkshood
Actaea racemosa, black cohosh
Actaea spicata, baneberry
Aesculus hippocastanum, horse chestnut
Amanita muscaria, fly agaric
Aquilegia atrata, columbine
Aristolochia clematitis, birthwort
Artemisia absinthium, wormwood
Arum italicum, Italian cuckoopint
Arum maculatum, cuckoopint
Aspergillus fumigatus
Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade
Brugmansia suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Bryonia dioica, bryony
Buxus sempervirens, common box
Camellia sinensis, tea
Cannabis sativa, marijuana
Catha edulis, khat
Chelidonium majus, greater celandine
Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh
Claviceps purpurea, ergot
Clematis vitalba, old man's beard
Colchicum autumnale, naked ladies
Conium maculatum, poison hemlock
Convallaria majalis, lily of the valley
Cynoglossum officinale, hound’s tongue
Daphne mezereon, spurge olive
Datura stramonium, thorn apple, jimsonweed
Datura suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Delphinium, larkspur
Digitalis spp., foxglove
Dracunculus vulgaris, dragon arum
Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss
Eranthis hyemalis, winter aconite
Erythroxylum coca, cocaine
Euonymus europaeus, spindle tree
Euphorbia x martinii, red spurge
Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia
Fritillaria spp., fritillary
Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop
Hedera helix, common ivy
Helleborus spp., hellebore
Heracleum mantegazzianum, giant hogweed
Hyacinthoides non-scripta, bluebell
Hyoscyamus niger, black henbane
Ilex aquifolium, holly
Jacobaea vulgaris, ragwort
Juniperus communis, common juniper
Laburnum anagyroides, laburnum
Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce
Leucojum aestivum, snowflake
Lithospermum officinale, gromwell
Lolium temulentum, darnel
Malus 'John Downie', crab apple
Mandragora officinarum, mandrake
Mercurialis perennis, dog’s mercury
Narcissus, daffodil
Nepeta faassenii, catmint
Nerium oleander, oleander
Nicotiana sylvestris, tobacco
Oenanthe crocata, hemlock water dropwort
Papaver somniferum, opium poppy
Pastinaca sativa, parsnip
Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal
Prunus laurocerasus, cherry laurel
Pulsatilla vulgaris, pasque flower
Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup
Rheum x hybridum, rhubarb
Rhododendron spp.
Rhus radicans, poison ivy
Ricinus communis, castor oil plant
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary
Rumex obtusifolius, broad-leaved dock
Ruta graveolens, rue
Salix alba, white willow
Salvia divinorum, sage
Scutellaria laterifolia, Virginian skullcap
Senecio jacobaea, ragwort
Solanum dulcamara, woody nightshade
Solanum melongena, aubergine
Strychnos nux-vomica, poison nut
Symphoricarpos albus, snowberry
Symphytum spp., comfrey
Taxus baccata, yew
Toxicodendron radicans, poison ivy
Thevetia peruviana, yellow oleander
Urtica dioica, stinging nettle
Veratrum album, white hellebore
Verbascum olympicum, Greek mullein
Vinca major, greater periwinkle
Viscum album, mistletoe
Vitex agnus-castus, chaste tree